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Viewing posts categorised under: Wealth Tax

Tax increases in Spain

By Barry Davys - Topics: Barcelona, Inheritance Tax, Spain, Tax, tax advice, Tax Efficient Savings, Wealth Tax
This article is published on: 16th May 2020

16.05.20

This is an article for those of us who live in Spain but will apply in every developed country around the world.

The Covid-19 pandemic has led to a worldwide lockdown, including here in Spain. The economy has been shut down with the likes of Seat in Barcelona stopping production and Barcelona tourist numbers collapsing. We all know this because we are all a living part of the lockdown.

In response to what looks like the worst economic crisis in the 300 years of modern data collection, governments and central banks around the world have provided some $7 trillion dollars of stimulus packages to economies and workers. It is the fastest and biggest reaction EVER to an economic crisis. Well done, the central banks! It genuinely is helping to make sure that as we slowly exit lockdown, individuals and companies will be in a little better condition to start up again.

Would I have it any other way? No! However, the question we now need to answer comes from Angela Merkel when asked to provide a European bailout in the 2009 crisis; “But where will the money come from?” A valid question. And even more so for the crisis that has come from the coronavirus pandemic.

Saving in Spain, ISA, Tax Free Saving in Spain

The money will come, in part, from higher taxation. In the UK today, a menu of proposed increases in taxation has been leaked. In Spain, a loophole in wealth tax legislation that allowed some unit linked insurance savings plans to be exempt from

wealth tax has been closed. What is significant is that these changes are coming now, before we are even clear of the lockdown and virus.

The changes to taxation in Spain are likely to include savings tax, inheritance tax and wealth tax in particular. Changes were already being discussed and the economic fallout from the pandemic provides the reason to bring forward these changes. Specifically, the EU has told us to harmonise inheritance tax across Autonomous Communities as there are big differences in the amount of tax to be paid.

In the draft budget for 2020, there is a proposal to change savings tax. At present, we have three bands of tax. The top rate for gains and investment income over €50,000 is 23%. A new band will be introduced for gains and investment income over €160,000 of 27%. We should expect this change to happen soon as it is already in the budget which is going before Parliament for approval. The first case I have seen where this will apply would lead to an additional €48,000 in tax. It is pertinent to bear in mind that these tax rates can apply to the gain on some property sales.

In addition to the wealth tax change described above, we understand that others may now be considered.

Planning actions

Help is at hand. There are planning actions that can be taken to minimise the tax issues. Here is a three point plan to minimise the effect of these changes:

1. Savings Tax. Move investments into Spanish tax efficient investments. These are available and you do not have to move your investment to Spain to qualify. They are available in Sterling as well as Euros and USD. If you would like confirmation on which of your current investments are tax efficient in Spain, I am happy to review them with you.

2. Inheritance Tax. This requires very careful consideration before making decisions to manage inheritance tax. Making sure you can maintain your lifestyle is an important part of this planning, especially for the survivor in the event of one half of a couple passing away. Once these criteria have been met, planning is feasible. A recent case of planning has saved £87,719 in UK inheritance tax for a couple living here in Spain. For nearly all of us from the UK, our estate at death will be assessed for UK inheritance tax.

3. Wealth Tax. Sometimes, the planning for wealth tax is simple. In other cases, not so simple. Care is needed and it is worthwhile asking for a review.

We have had our cake in the form of stimulus to protect the economy. We will shortly find we will have indigestion from eating the cake in the form of higher taxes. Fortunately, we still have a few indigestion tablets available to relieve our pain.

If you wish to discuss tax on your savings, inheritance tax or wealth tax please feel welcome to call. If this helps, you can match your availability for a call with mine online here.

Planning for the Inevitable

By David Hattersley - Topics: Inheritance Tax, Spain, Succession Planning, Wealth Tax, Wills
This article is published on: 13th February 2020

13.02.20

The Grim Reaper is not a nice subject, but its finality remains. There are those left behind, alone after the loss of their Spouse or Partner. There is a grieving process. But at the same time is the harsh reality of due process. Wills, Probate, Succession Tax, Inheritance Tax and Death Certificates spring to mind, with added complication in a “Cross Border” society. One hopes that we can offer sympathy, support and help, but trying to soften the blow for loved ones is best prepared for with forward planning such as Wills, Funeral Plans, Life Insurance and Estate Planning.

Circumstances prior to death take many forms. Recent family experience has bought all of this into sharp focus; there was the duality of emotions, allied to the need to help in a professional capacity in what was a complex mire. The double edged sword of living longer applies. Death can be quick, or prolonged due to substantial improvements in many critical fields such as cancer treatment.

“Lingering Death” can take months or years. Drugs can help alleviate Dementia & Alzheimer’s, but do not provide a cure. These illnesses are certified causes on a Death Certificate. What isn’t is the loss of “Independent Existence”. This is a gradual erosion; loss of a lifetime spouse/partner, location, loss of mobility and simply carrying out simple day to day tasks all take their toll. It creates an immense strain on the family, financially and emotionally. ”Long Term Care” often starts in the home, but eventually Long Term Care in a Residential Nursing Home can become the only option.

In Spain costs are substantially less than the UK, but for some the UK becomes the only option due to language and family support. Careful planning in advance can sometimes mitigate the more onerous UK costs and “taxes” or help prolong the benefits of living in Spain. But it is complex and many factors need to be considered well in advance, taking into account “Cross Border Taxes” and differing rules.

It is hard to consider the impact of all the above and many people prefer to ignore it, but I feel compelled to bring this important subject into the open. There are things you can do to make things easier for your loved ones; if financial and legal aspects are well planned out, that is one less thing for them to worry about. I will be posting a series of articles dealing with the many differing issues that I have come across and the steps you can take to overcome them, as it will affect us all one way or another.

Don’t despair or defer; positive steps can be made to mitigate future headaches as much as possible and we are here to help. One of the best ways forward is to sit down with someone who understands the possibilities and to make a plan. Contact me now if you would like to discuss what you can do to make the future easier.

TAXATION UPDATE IN SPAIN

By Charles Hutchinson - Topics: Modelo 720, Spain, Wealth Tax
This article is published on: 16th January 2020

16.01.20

We now have a new government here in Spain, albeit quite far to the left which could cause some more interesting changes in taxation. Watch this space.

WEALTH TAX
So far, the reinstatement of the 100% allowance for Wealth Tax (which was approved in 2011) has been delayed again for one more year as part of the 2018 budget extension, due to the recent era of no federal government being in place. Nor has the Junta de Andalucia made any moves to reinstate the allowance in the 2020 budget either.

MODEL 720 DECLARATION OF FOREIGN ASSETS
On the 23rd October 2019, the EU Commission filed a complaint in the European Court of Justice to the effect that Spain has not complied with the Commission’s findings in November 2015 namely that Modelo 720 deters businesses and private individuals from investing or moving across borders in the Single Market. Also these provisions are in conflict with the fundamental freedoms in the EU; this conflict affects free movements of persons, free movement of workers, freedom of establishment, freedom to provide services and the free movement of capital.

Furthermore, the Commission has claimed that by introducing late filing penalties and the labeling of these foreign assets as unjustified capital gains (which are not subject to the statute of limitations), it has breached EU law. Additionally, whatever the amounts involved, they are all subject to tax at the top marginal rate (45% in 2012) plus a fixed penalty of 150% in addition to the tax and further fixed penalties for failure to file, which are higher than the general rules on similar infringements. Spain, therefore, is liable to comply with EU law and to pay costs.

Although precedence does not exist in Roman law, a precedent was set in 2011 when the EU successfully prosecuted Spain over discriminatory Inheritance and Gift Tax rules. This ended with a Court resolution in 2014 that led to an amendment in Spanish Law and opened the door for reclaims of taxes paid over the previous 4 years.

The issue of the Declaration continues to be of great concern to many people in Spain, particularly the expatriate community. Some of the most vulnerable assets are foreign bank accounts. These can be easily switched into other foreign assets where reporting under Modelo 720 is not required and the taxation of income from them (if taken) is greatly reduced.

If you have concerns in this area, please contact me where I can assist you with the problem.

Source: JC&A Abagados, Marbella

Are taxes in Italy really ‘that’ complicated?

By Gareth Horsfall - Topics: Income Tax, Italy, Tax, taxation of rental property, Wealth Tax
This article is published on: 30th April 2018

30.04.18

As I walk my son to school in the morning we have the opportunity to walk through the palazzo of an ‘Archivio di Stato’ in the centre of Rome. It is a real piece of classical architecture with cloister like columned walkways surrounding a central open space with a tower adorned with various statues at one end. However, it is not this amazing building which captures my attention each morning, but a plaque on the wall as we walk through the columned part. The plaque reads: Alluvione di 1870. The marker on the wall must be approximately 1 metre 50cm high. To think that the water reached that level is quite unimaginable. And thinking about this each day naturally leads me to the subject of floods. My personal flood is the annual flood of emails into my inbox, at this time of year, asking for clarification on taxes in Italy.

So this article is also about laying down some of the details of those pesky taxes that we all have to pay in Italy. Remember that the submission of your tax information should be formalised by the end of May. If you use a commercialista, even earlier, to allow them time to go through your information, ask questions and report it correctly. The first payment for the year is due on June 16th.

So, where do we start?
As a fiscally resident individual in Italy you are subject to taxation on your worldwide assets and income (with some exceptions), and realised capital gains. This means you are required to declare your assets and income and realised capital gains, wherever they might be located, or generated in the world.

Fiscal residency is going to become very important post BREXIT for Britons who reside in Italy. Questions have arisen as to what fiscal residency means. For a defintion you can read my post HERE

Tax on income
If you are in receipt of a pension income and it is being paid from a ‘private’ pension or occupational pension provider overseas or you are in receipt of an overseas state pension then that income has to be declared on your Italian tax return. If you have paid tax already on that income then a tax credit will be given for the tax paid in the country of origin (assuming that country has a double taxation agreement with Italy), but any difference between the tax rates in the country of origin and Italy will have to be paid.

** Government service, civil service and local government pensions of any kind (eg. Teachers, Nurses etc.) are only taxed in the state in which they originate, and tax is deducted at source in the country of origin. They are not taxed in Italy unless you become an Italian citizen **

It is a similar picture for income generated from employment. This is a slightly more complicated issue that depends on multiple factors. If you have any questions in this area you can contact me on gareth.horsfall@spectrum-ifa.com

Investment income and capital gains
As of 1st January 2018, interest from savings, income from investments in the form of dividends and other non-earned income payments stands unchanged and are taxed at a flat 26%. Realised capital gains are also taxed at the same rate of 26%.

(Interest from Italian Government Bonds and Government Bonds from ‘white list’ countries are still taxed at 12.5% rather than 26%, as detailed above. This is another quirk of Italian tax law as this means that you pay less tax as a holder of Government Bonds in Pakistan or Kazakhstan, than a holder of Corporate Bonds from Italian giants ENI or FIAT).

Property Overseas
Property which is located overseas is taxed in 2 ways. Firstly, there is the tax on the income and, secondly, a tax on the value of the property itself.

The income from property overseas.
Overseas NET property income (after allowable expenses in the country in which the property is located and taxed) is added to your other income for the year and taxed at your highest rate of income tax.

I would like to clarify what I mean by ‘net property income’. If we take the UK as an example, this means that you MUST make a tax declaration in the UK first. The UK property is a fixed asset in the UK and therefore must be treated to UK tax law before any declaration in Italy. After you have deducted allowable expenses in the UK and paid any tax liable in the UK, the NET property income figure must be submitted in your UK tax return.

Where many properties are generating all of your income this can prove to be a tax INEFFICIENT income-stream for residents in Italy. It is better to have a diversified income stream to maximise tax planning opportunities.

I will also add some comments here in that I often hear from people who are told by their commercialista that no expenses can be deducted in Italy. This is correct. What they mean (or what I am interpreting that they mean) is that you cannot deduct the UK allowable expenses directly through the Italian tax return. This has to be done first in the UK tax return, in this example. This is correct process. However, it does not mean that the expenses cannot be deducted per se. It just means they have to deducted in the revelant tax return first before reporting the NET result in Italy.

** Tax credits will be given for any tax paid in another country in order to avoid double taxation, where a double taxation treaty exists with Italy.

2. The other tax is on the value of the property itself, which is 0.76% of the value. (IVIE)
Value must be defined in this instance. For EU based properties, the value is the Italian cadastral equivalent. In the UK that would be the council tax value NOT the market value. This value is always expressed asa range of values rather than a specific one. You will find that the market value will, in most cases, be more than the cadastral equivalent value.

For properties located in other European countries, for example France, you will find that they may have a similar ‘cadastral’ value. Where this value is calculated in the same way as Italy, a tax credit is offered against any IVIE tax payable in Italy. The tax credit is not applicable to UK properties as the tax is due on the occupant of the property and not the owner.

In properties located outside the EU, the value for tax purposes is defined as the market value of the property ONLY where evidence cannot be provided of the purchase value of the property, in which case this would be used instead.

** BREXIT FINANCIAL PLANNING OPPORTUNITY**
After the UK exit from the EU, the cadastral equivalent value of a property in the UK will revert to the original purchase price, where evidence can be provided. Given that UK councils are likely to review their council tax bands in the comings years to fund shortfalls in their accounts, this could mean less tax to pay in Italy.

Taxes on Assets

1. Banks accounts and deposits
A very simple to understand and acceptable €34.20 per annum is applied to each current account you own. This includes fixed deposits, short term cash deposits, CD’s etc. The charge is the equivalent of the ‘imposta da bollo’ which is applied to all Italian deposit accounts each year.

The rules regarding whether you need to declare the account can be found on my blog post ‘IF IN DOUBT, DECLARE THE ACCOUNT

I am of the view that if you have a bank account in the UK with more than €5000 in it and/or a regular income being credited to it, then you should declare the bank account in Italy regardless of the tax reporting requirements. For the sake of the tax of €34.20, it is not worth taking the risk.

2. Other financial assets
The charge, IVAFE, is levied on other foreign-owned assets which covers shares, bonds, funds, portfolio assets, cryptocurrency, gold deposits, art work or most other types of assets that you may hold. The tax on these is 0.2% per annum based on the valuation as of 31st December each year.

Also remember that if you have a portfolio of managed assets that are NOT held in an a suitably compliant Italian Investment bond, then all the separate funds/shares/assets are considered “individual” and MUST be reported individually on your tax return each year. That also includes reconciling any income/dividend/distribution payments that have been made and also any capital gains that have been realised. A reference to the Banca D’Italia exchange must be made for each transaction on the correct date.

3. Pensions
It is worth noting here that for any UK style private pension or occupational pension arrangements, where the pension structure is an irrevocable trust, then the tax treatment is 2 fold.

a) any income that you draw from the pension each year is taxable at your highest rate of income tax in Italy.

b) the fund itself needs to be reported under ‘monitoraggio’ of trusts section of the Quadro RW. Failure to do so could result in fines. Although highly unlikely, you never can be sure.

This is a concise list of the taxes that affect most of you.

Preparing your loved ones for life after your death

By John Hayward - Topics: Costa Blanca, Estate Planning, Spain, Succession Planning, Wealth Tax, Wills
This article is published on: 9th September 2017

09.09.17

Having recently attended a funeral for a good friend of mine, I was reminded of the problems a death can create, aside from the actual act of dying. It appeared that, although he had organised a funeral plan, he had not made it clear where his Will was. Even if the Will was found, most Wills are written to distribute unspecified assets. An heir needs to know what assets there are before claiming anything. A draw full of files might appear organised but much of the content may be out of date or even completely irrelevant.

Who is the household´s financial controller?
In my experience, when dealing with couples, one party, normally the husband, deals with all things financial. This has resulted in many widows having a hard time with finances on the death of the husband. The thought of picking a phone up to contact their bank is daunting enough. Forgetting one of the six security questions is fatal. Logging into the online banking system is totally out of the question, even if they knew what the user ID and password were.

What can you do?
It is a really good idea to make a list, with company name and reference number, of all the bank accounts, insurance policies, investments (insurance bonds/unit trusts/shares), premium bonds, and anything else which would make life easier for those looking after your affairs on your demise. Here is a link which illustrates just how much information could be required. Are you confident someone will easily be able to put all of this together?

How can we help?
Many years ago, I was a “Man from the major UK insurance company”. I still tend to work on the home service principle. Meeting people in their homes has always been more attractive to me as paperwork will often be to hand. There is also the possibility of a cup of tea and a digestive. There have been times when I have found investments that people were unaware of and also helped to cull the collection of paperwork, creating more storage space, and possibly room for a new sofa (from the proceeds of the policy they didn´t know about). Obviously, I do not wish to major in house clearance but I am happy to help people organise their paperwork, review existing investments and pensions, and make life easier for those with the task of dealing with everything later. Hopefully much later.

Fun financial fact
According to several reports, in 2012, in the USA, a 1 cent coin cost 2.4 cents to make. By 2016, the cost had reduced to 1.5 cents. Making cents still does not seem to be making sense.

Wealth Tax in Catalunya

By Barry Davys - Topics: Barcelona, Catalunya, Estate Planning, Inheritance Tax, Spain, Succession Planning, Wealth Tax
This article is published on: 3rd August 2017

03.08.17

We understand the need to pay tax. It gives us hospitals to treat our family, care in later life and many other services. Yet it is also easy to feel unhappy about some taxes. Some seem just downright unfair.

Wealth tax is the first of these. Having worked hard and paid tax on our earnings, we have then also paid tax on our savings. Despite this we have managed to build our savings, have become less of a burden on the state and yet we are now taxed again with Wealth Tax for having saved. Fortunately, it is possible to pay what is due but also to manage the amount due.

Wealth Tax in Catalunya – How it works
Wealth tax ( Patrimonial ) is applied if your worldwide assets are more than 500,000€ with an additional allowance of up to 300,000€ for your main residence. The tax is based upon your net wealth; assets minus liabilities.

In Catalunya the rates of tax start at 0.21% and rises to 2.75% depending on your wealth. Each year!

Your wealth as at 31st December is declared as part of your Declaración de la Renta, your annual tax return and the payment of the tax made on the 30th June in the following year.

How to manage the amount due
There are some assets that are excluded from Wealth tax. Surprisingly, some of these are mainstream investments. It may be possible to reduce your Wealth Tax by using an exempt investment.

In addition, the amount of tax due is capped at 60% of your income tax base, subject to paying at least 20% of the total tax based on your wealth. It is often possible to adjust your income so that you are limited to the 60% of your income tax base. Typically, this is done by using investments which are not assessed for tax each year. However, there are several methods of planning to achieve a reduction in Wealth Tax.