Viewing posts categorised under: Spain

Tax in Spain can be a matter of opinion

By John Hayward - Topics: Pensions, Section 32 Buyout, spain, Tax
This article is published on: 17th April 2018

17.04.18

In Spain, there can be a huge difference in what autonomous regions charge for income, capital gains, wealth, and inheritance/succession taxes. Rules generally come from central government in Madrid but how that comes out in the fiscal wash in each region can vary considerably. For the purpose of future articles, my focus will be on the Valencian Community incorporating Castellón, Valencia, and Alicante.

There is also an unwritten rule which seems to be rife. The law of opinion. On a subject that you would think there should be clear instruction from the Spanish tax authorities, there is a lot of ignorance on several tax matters and so the law of opinion kicks in. This is especially true for any products which are based, or have been arranged, outside Spain. With the threat of fines for not declaring assets and paying taxes correctly, it seems at least slightly unjust that there is not clear instruction on how different assets are treated for tax.

As my colleague Chris Burke from Barcelona recently wrote, lump sums from pension funds can have special tax treatment, both in the UK and Spain. However, even though most people and their dog know that there is a 25% tax free lump sum in the UK, not everyone is aware that this lump sum is potentially taxable in Spain. Also, it is not common knowledge that there is a 40% discount on qualifying pension lump sums. It is likely that many people have overpaid taxes due to no or bad advice.

Can you tell the difference between margarine and a Section 32 Buyout?
If you can, you could be leader of the Conservative Party, according to the script of The Last Goon Show of All (Actually the comparison was between margarine and a lump on the head but the qualification would seem equally apt almost 50 years later). It is frightening what little knowledge there is with regard to pension schemes, notably with the advisers who make money for arranging them! A Section 32 Buyout plan is just one of many types of pension scheme which have emerged over the last 30 to 40 years. Few people are familiar with all the different types.

A pension fund is, in many cases, the second largest asset behind a property. People are generally familiar with the property expressions such as “doors”, “windows”, “walls”, “kitchen”, etc. They know where these things need to go and when they need repair and maintenance. When it comes to pensions, it is a different story. In a way, that is great for us because it means people need advice. The problem comes when they leave themselves open to advice which is inaccurate, if not complete garbage.

People need to check the qualifications of an adviser and their firm before exposing themselves to potential problems. I have the Chartered Insurance Institute G60 Pensions qualification. You won´t find too many advisers with this, especially not in Spain. As a company we have a team which is qualified and which keeps up to date with pension rules in the UK and Europe. All enquiries go through them before anything is arranged which should give comfort to those nervous about what will happen to their pension funds.

UK Investments & ISAs – Tax Treatment in Spain

By Chris Burke - Topics: Barcelona, Captial Gains, dividends, Investments, ISAs, Premium Bonds, spain, Tax, UK investments
This article is published on: 16th April 2018

16.04.18

With automatic exchange of financial information between most countries now standard practice, most of us already recognise the importance of declaring our assets properly and fully. In the UK, if your accountant or tax adviser declares your assets incorrectly, they are liable; however, that is NOT the case in Spain. I have been contacted by many people with various stories of how their accountants in Spain have reported assets. Sometimes it feels like people are speaking to numerous accountants until they find the one with the answer they want – if the declaration is incorrect though, and leads to an investigation, you are personally liable. Therefore, it is essential to have your assets reported correctly.

It is quite straightforward to understand the Spanish tax treatment of your UK assets. If they are NOT Spanish compliant – that is to say, not EU based and regulated AND the company holding these assets doesn’t have a fiscal representative and authorisation in Spain – then income and investment growth are taxable annually. Note that investment growth on assets such as shares, ISAs and premium bonds is taxable regardless of whether you have taken any income or withdrawals.

Below you will see the main list of investments that need to be declared and the tax rates that apply annually:

Type of Assets/Investment Tax Payable Type of Tax
Investment funds/stocks/shares Yes, on growth Capital Gains Tax (19-23%)
ISAs Yes, on growth Capital Gains Tax (19-23%)
Premium Bonds Yes, on gain/win Income Tax (19-45%)
Interest from Banks Yes, on growth Capital Gains Tax (19-23%)
Rental Income Yes Income Tax (19-45%)
Pension Income Yes Income Tax (19-45%)

Expenses may be able to offset some of the tax on gains, and for long term property rentals you can receive up to 60% discount on net rental income. However, tax reliefs and allowances that applied in the UK are not available to you in Spain.

There are ways of reducing these taxes, by having your finances organised correctly, and in many cases there is also scope to defer tax. This means there is no tax to pay if you are not taking an income or withdrawals from your investment. In fact, the more your money grows, the greater the potential tax saving.

The first thing you should do, and any financial adviser or tax adviser should do, is consider ways of mitigating your tax, both now and in the future. Otherwise you could end up with a ‘leaking bucket’. Many accountants are starting to increase charges for declaring UK assets, which need to be listed individually and where there is often lack of familiarity with the assets held. By the time you have paid the tax for NOT drawing your money, paid your accountant and lost any tax relief that applied in the UK, in most cases there are more cost effective, tax efficient, Spanish compliant options available. Furthermore, for those returning to the UK, there is still generous tax relief which applies to certain Spanish compliant investments.

For an initial discussion regarding your finances and practical guidance on planning opportunities, please get in touch – my advice and recommendations are provided free of charge without obligation – chris.burke@spectrum-ifa.com

Taking a Lump Sum from your Pension when Resident in Spain

By Chris Burke - Topics: Barcelona, Pension Lump Sums, Pensions, spain, UK Pensions
This article is published on: 13th April 2018

13.04.18

There are conflicting stories on how much lump sum/one off amount can you take from your pension if resident in Spain and what the tax will be. Indeed, many people with UK pensions believe it is better to take their UK pension lump sum in the UK before (grey line here if they have already moved!) they move to Spain permanently, as they will pay less tax. Firstly, even if you have a UK pension but are resident in Spain, this has to be declared in Spain. Secondly, if you finished contributing before 2007 you actually can receive MORE tax relief in Spain than in the UK (dependent upon the pension you have and how you take it).

To clarify, in the UK you can currently take a 25% tax free amount from all your private pensions and anymore would then be taxable.

If resident in Spain, you have the right to take up to 100% of your personal pensions in one go (100% in capital), to receive part in capital and part through regular payments or to receive the whole amount through regular payments. If you receive an amount in capital (a whole or a part) then you can apply for a tax reduction of 40% of the amount received for any contributions you made prior to 2007. This option can only be applied once, so, if you have more than one pension plan, you have to receive all of them in the same tax year if you want to apply this reduction. To clarify, it is the value the contributions have accumulated to today that is tax exempt, not the amount of actual contributions made back then.

From January 2007 there is no tax exemption, zero. Therefore, any contributions made from this point receive no tax exemption, however if the contribution to the pension runs before and after this date the tax exemption is calculated the same way.

If you take the amount as a regular payment you will have to pay income tax as if you have received any other general taxable income (a salary for example). In both of these cases, the amount that is taxed (with or without the 40%) is subject to the general income tax rate.

Lump Sum Pension Tax in Spain Lump Sum

Total amount of pensions: £150,000
Amount to be taken in lump sum/one off: £50,000
Amount tax exempt in Spain: £20,000
Pension lump sum amount income taxable: £30,000 (added to your annual income tax band)


Now if we look at the UK example we shall see the difference:

Total amount of pensions: £150,000
Amount to be taken in lump sum: £50,000
Amount tax exempt in UK: £37,500
Pension lump sum amount income taxable: £13,000 (added to your annual income tax band)

 

However, in the following scenario the Spain example works more in your favour:

Lump Sum Pension Tax in Spain Lump Sum

Total amount of pensions: £100,000
Amount to be taken in lump sum/one off: £100,000
Amount tax exempt in Spain: £40,000
Pension lump sum amount income taxable: £60,000 (added to your annual income)

 

UK Example

Total amount of pensions: £100,000
Amount to be taken in lump sum/one off: £100,000
Amount tax exempt in Spain: £25,000
Pension lump sum amount income taxable: £75,000 (added to your annual income tax band)

Important points to note here are:
If you cash in your UK pension OVER 25% and are registered in the UK as a non resident, an emergency tax code is likely to be used up to 45% and you will have to claim back what is owed to you. Unless you are able to provide a P45 from the current tax year following withdrawal from employment and/or current pension plan,

or

The pension provider already holds a P45 or up to date cumulative tax code received from HMRC as the result of previous withdrawals from that pension plan, and can apply it.

If you take your UK pension as a 25% lump sum, this should be declared in Spain and would apply to the Spanish rules of 40% being tax exempt and the rest income taxable. You would therefore pay any tax owed in Spain.

Only the FIRST Lump Sum is tax exempt so it’s important to realise that and make sure you plan effectively.

Regular payments from your pension fall under income tax

From 2007 onwards there is NO tax exemption of this kind.

Top Tips For Your Pension Lump Sum/One Off
When taking your lump sum, take it in the year that is most tax efficient for you, such as when you have lower income from other sources.

Moving your pension outside the UK could give you more freedom, more choices and potentially less tax to pay in the long term (depending on your situation).

Source: Silvia Gabarró GM Tax Consultancy Barcelona

Tax relief on Spanish charity donations

By Chris Burke - Topics: Barcelona, spain, Tax Relief
This article is published on: 19th March 2018

19.03.18

When you pay Spanish income tax while residing in Spain, you can qualify for tax relief on any charity donations that you make (to certain types of charities such as foundations or NGO’s, i.e. non profit making organisations.

The tax relief you can receive here in Spain, whether you are employed, self employed or have a Spanish S.L. (company) are as follows:

For individuals & self employed (autonomo)

Amount paid in charity donation,
up to per year
Percentage deduction (%)
150euro 75%
Amount paid above 150euro 30% (or 35*)

 

* If the amount paid in each of the two previous years is the same or more than the amount paid the previous year of each of these two years, the percentage increases to 35%.

The amount deductable cannot exceed 10% of the taxable income of the year.

For companies

Tax relief is 35% unless the amount paid in each the two previous years is equal or more than the amount paid the previous year of each of these two years, in which case the percentage increases to 40%.

The amount deductable in a year cannot exceed 10% of the taxable income of that year. If it does, you can apply the excess during the 10 following years.

In each of the above cases, the deduction is taken from the amount of tax to be paid.

People are much more responsive to charitable pleas that feature a single, identifiable beneficiary than they are to statistical information about the scale of the problem being faced. In essence, we are ruled by our hearts, not our heads when donating and showing the proven effectiveness of the charity can actually have the opposite effect to that intended. Take the time to research your chosen charity to make sure your money is going to be doing what you want it to do.

Although many people would like to leave a gift to charity in their will, they often forget about it when they write their will. Research has shown that if the will-writer just asks someone if they would like to donate, the rate of donation roughly doubles. Remember to make a list of any charities you would like to contribute to, before you sit down to write your will.

Giving to charity is contagious, seeing others give makes an individual more likely to give themselves and gentle encouragement from a prominent person in your life can make also make a big difference to your donation decisions. Most people support charities in one way or another, but often struggle to make donations as often as they think they should or would like to.

If you would like to donate to charity more but it slips to the back of your mind, create a habit. For example, every time you receive a bonus or every time you get paid you could make a donation, or if it is the birthday of someone close to you, send them a birthday wish and give a little to charity. Spending money on others actually makes us happier than spending it on ourselves!

Source GM Tax consultancy, Barcelona.

Pension Commencement Lump Sum Tax in Spain – How does it work?

By Chris Burke - Topics: Barcelona, Pensions, spain, UK Pensions
This article is published on: 16th March 2018

16.03.18

There are conflicting stories on how much lump sum/one off amount can you take from your pension if resident in Spain and what the tax will be. Indeed, many people with UK pensions believe it is better to take their UK pension lump sum in the UK before (grey line here if they have already moved!) they move to Spain permanently, as they will pay less tax. Firstly, even if you have a UK pension but are resident in Spain, this has to be declared in Spain. Secondly, if you finished contributing before 2007 you actually can receive MORE tax relief in Spain than in the UK (dependent upon the pension you have and how you take it).

To clarify, in the UK you can currently take a 25% tax free amount from all your private pensions and anymore would then be taxable.

If resident in Spain, you have the right to take up to 100% of your personal pensions in one go (100% in capital), to receive part in capital and part through regular payments or to receive the whole amount through regular payments. If you receive an amount in capital (a whole or a part) then you can apply for a tax reduction of 40% of the amount received for any contributions you made prior to 2007. This option can only be applied once, so, if you have more than one pension plan, you have to receive all of them in the same tax year if you want to apply this reduction.

If you take the amount as a regular payment you will have to pay income tax as if you have received any other general taxable income (a salary for example). In both of these cases, the amount that is taxed (with or without the 40%) is subject to the general income tax rate.

Lump Sum Pension Tax in Spain Lump Sum

Total amount of pensions £150,000
Amount to be taken in lump sum/one off £50,000
Amount tax exempt in Spain £20,000
Pension lump sum amount income taxable £30,000 (added to your annual income tax band)

 

Now if we look at the UK example we shall see the difference

Total amount of pensions £150,000
Amount to be taken in lump sum £50,000
Amount tax exempt in the UK £37,500
Pension lump sum amount income taxable £13,000 (added to your annual income tax band)

However, in the following scenario the Spain example works more in your favour:

Total amount of pensions £100,000
Amount to be taken in lump sum/one off £100,000
Amount tax exempt in Spain £40,000
Pension lump sum amount income taxable £60,000 (added to your annual income tax band)

 

UK Example

Total amount of pensions £100,000
Amount to be taken in lump sum/one off £100,000
Amount tax exempt in Spain £25,000
Pension lump sum amount income taxable £75,000 (added to your annual income tax band)

Important points to note here are:
If you cash in your UK pension OVER 25% and are registered in the UK as a non resident, an emergency tax code is likely to be used up to 45% and you will have to claim back what is owed to you. Unless you are able to provide a P45 from the current tax year following withdrawal from employment and/or current pension plan,

or

The pension provider already holds a P45 or up to date cumulative tax code received from HMRC as the result of previous withdrawals from that pension plan, and can apply it.

If you take your UK pension as a 25% lump sum, this should be declared in Spain and would apply to the Spanish rules of 40% being tax exempt and the rest income taxable. You would therefore pay any tax owed in Spain.

Only the FIRST Lump Sum is tax exempt so it’s important to realise that and make sure you plan effectively.

Regular payments from your pension fall under income tax

From 2007 onwards there is NO tax exemption of this kind.

Top Tips For Your Pension Lump Sum/One Off
When taking your lump sum, take it in the year that is most tax efficient for you, such as when you have lower income from other sources.

Moving your pension outside the UK could give you more freedom, more choices and potentially less tax to pay in the long term (depending on your situation).

Source: Silvia Gabarró GM Tax Consultancy Barcelona

2018 Modelo 720 Reporting Time!

By Chris Burke - Topics: Barcelona, Modelo 720, spain
This article is published on: 10th March 2018

10.03.18

Just a reminder that time is running out for submitting your Modelo 720 declaration for 2018. The deadline this year is the 31st March and is fast approaching.

All those tax resident in Spain (those living in Spain for more than 183 days a year or where Spain is the main base for your business) should be aware that as a result of legislation passed on 29th October 2012, residents in Spain who have any assets outside of Spain with a value of €50.000 (or alternative currency equivalent) or more, are required to submit this declaration form to the Spanish authorities.

This declaration can be made online, through the Tax Office`s web page www.agenciatributaria.es where the Modelo 720 formcan be located (type in Modelo 720 into the search block on the top right hand side of the page). It must be filed between January 1st and March 31st of the first year of residence to avoid being investigated or fined by the Spanish authorities. I would personally recommend speaking with your accountant / Gestoria to avoid mistakes.

    1. Property
    1. Bank accounts (cash)
    1. Investments

To warrant a declaration the total value of assets should exceed €50.000 in each or any one of the categories; e.g. if you have 3 bank accounts and totalling up all the balances it exceeds the €50.000 limit you are subject to making the Modelo 720 declaration. However, if you have a bank account at €30.000 and, say, investments valued at €30.000 then there would be no reporting requirement as they are in separate categories and each individual total value does not exceed the €50.000.

A declaration must be submitted individually, regardless of the percentage of ownership (in joint accounts). For example, if you have a joint bank account with a value exceeding €50.000, although your particular (say €25.000) share is below the threshold, each owner would still be required to submit an individual declaration based on the total value of the account.

Although this declaration of assets abroad is solely informative and no tax is charged, failure to file, late filing or false information could result in serious consequences.

For this reason, we recommend that everybody arranges to declare their assets, to avoid the imposition of fines from a minimum of €10.000 to a maximum of 150% of the value of those undeclared assets located outside Spain. Once you have made your first declaration it is not necessary to present any further declarations in subsequent years, unless any of your assets in any category increases by more than €20.000 above the initial value declared.

The Beckham Law 2018

By Chris Burke - Topics: Barcelona, Beckham Law, spain
This article is published on: 8th March 2018

08.03.18

Also originally known as ‘The Special Displaced Workers Regime’, The Beckham Law has been in place since it was passed by Spanish Tax decree in 2005. The Law has undergone two reforms/changes since its inception (2010 and 2015) and was originally open to all foreign workers living in Spain adhering to certain conditions.

Why was it brought in?
In essence, it was designed to attract brains, talent and wealth from all over the world, encouraging high earners to become Tax Resident in Spain (spending more than 183 days a year living there) and thus pay 24% income tax (IRPF), as opposed to rising up to 43% (or higher in certain circumstances). It was given its name by one of the first high profile sports people to use it, David Beckham, when he signed for Real Madrid.

Who can take advantage of it?
The main criteria to be eligible for the Beckham Rule are:

  • You must not have been a Spanish resident in the last 10 years when applying
  • You must be employed by a Spanish company, or a non Spanish company but with a permanent office here in Spain (You can be a director of a company but hold no more than 25% of the shares)
  • The rule can be used for the remaining Tax year you start in, and the following five
  • The application MUST be made within 6 months of starting your employment in Spain
  • You have to be resident in Spain and also have at least 85% of your work interests there

Reforms/Changes
The Law became infamous and a perfect fit for Spanish football clubs to buy some of the best well known footballers in the world, since the player’s tax would be much lower than in other countries. However, in 2010 the law was changed to address this popularity with high earning footballers, and a rule was brought in to limit the annual earnings applicable to €600,000, three years after David Beckham had left Spain.

Then, in 2015 they went one step further and completely excluded professional athletes from applying for this. However, those already on a contract were not affected. They also removed the limit of €600,000, but any income over that level is now taxed at 45%. Note that any capital gains would adhere to the current rules of 19%, 21% and 23% respectively (not applicable for the first €6,000).

Other Major Benefits
Critically, one of the major benefits of this rule is that under it, you do not pay taxes on any gains outside of Spain. So if you sell an asset with a taxable gain, such as a business or property in another country, you could make a considerable saving.

Moving on from this and to a more regular scenario, you would not pay tax on any property rental income, bank account interest, investments or savings in another country.

You would also not be required to submit certain other annual reports such as the ‘Modelo 720 Overseas Assets declaration’ during this period of time.

Why you might not want to apply for the Beckham Rule
There is no minimum annual earnings to apply, however you do not receive any personal income allowances, thus a general rule of thumb is that earning over €60,000 might make it worthwhile for you to apply.

The other reason you might not want to apply is that if the country you are from has a less favourable tax rate, then paying capital gains tax in Spain could be better.

If you have any questions regarding this, or would like to discuss applying for it or your personal situation, please contact us through the form below:
Source GM Tax Consultancy, Barcelona

Investment Categories

By Pauline Bowden - Topics: Investment Risk, Investments, spain, wealth management
This article is published on: 3rd March 2018

03.03.18

The risk scale, i.e. volatility of return, for general investment categories sorts investments from 1, least risk, to 8, highest risk.

  1. Bank Account
  2. Cash or Money Market Funds
  3. Debt Investments: Bonds and Bond Funds
  4. Common Stocks and Shares (Equities) and Equity Funds
  5. Real Estate
  6. Collectibles and Commodities ( stamps, art, gold, diamonds, oil etc)
  7. Options
  8. Futures

Categories 1 and 2 usually have returns that are near to the rate of inflation. In other words, not a good return on your investment in the long term, though they are low risk.

Category 3 usually has better returns than 1 and 2 and in most cases Bonds provide a fairly safe investment. However, there is a wide range of risk within this category; from Junk Bonds with very high risk to Treasury Bonds with lowest risk.

Category 4 is where most investment is based. In general, mixed, managed, well balanced stock markets funds are safer than individual stocks because of diversification and professional management. The professional management allows the investor to concentrate more on family, job etc. instead of having to spend large amounts of time managing a portfolio of individual stocks.

Category 5, real estate, is a very localised investment fraught with more “negatives” than most people realise and not easy to sell at short notice i.e. illiquid. However, it can be – if bought, managed and sold correctly – a great source of wealth.

Categories 6, 7 and 8 should only be considered by experts in the relative fields. The risk is too high for investors without specialist knowledge.

Before making any investment decisions, be sure of your personal risk rating, diversify your portfolio and get advice from a Licensed Independent Financial Adviser. Call Pauline Bowden on 616 743 108 or email Pauline.bowden@spectrum-ifa.com for a free, personal, confidential consultation.

Pension Healthcheck – Tips and Advice for 2018

By Chris Burke - Topics: Barcelona, pension transfer, Pensions, QROPS, Retirement, spain
This article is published on: 2nd March 2018

02.03.18

Whether you are thinking about the amount of pension you want in the future or are approaching retirement, a pension health check might be the answer you are looking for. With the UK government bringing in autoenrolment (the process by where companies who employ at least 1 person have to make sure they save into a pension) which has been massively successful, it is clear that as the years go by and with people living longer, it is more important than ever to save for the future. A pension healthcheck is your chance to ask general questions, be proactive and start planning for your retirement. Every year that you don’t start a pension, the amount of money that you will require becomes a lot more expensive for you to achieve, due to the effects of compound growth.

The UK population is projected to continue growing, reaching over 74 million by 2039. It is also getting older with 18% aged 65 and over and 2.4% aged 85 and over. In 2016 there were 285 people aged 65 and over for every 1,000 people aged 16 to 64 years (“traditional working age”). Years ago, people generally retired at 55 and perhaps lived until 66/67 meaning 12 years of retirement income. Now, retirement starts at 60/65 and the average life expectancy is Europe is around 85. So mathematically, you can see the issue, which is why 89% of final salary pension schemes in the UK are financially in trouble: their calculations were not initiated on this model of retirement and life expectancy.

Are pensions the answer?
This is debatable for many circumstances, particularly in Spain where you do not receive tax relief on large pension contributions. Many years ago it was different, when you could put tens of thousands of pounds into a pension and receive tax relief, or a company paid into it for you. However, in today’s world most people don’t fall under this scenario.

What IS the answer to retirement planning?
Make sure any assets you own work for you, including rental properties, investments, inheritances or money saved regularly. Yes, you can receive tax relief on money you save into a pension purse, however, this money is usually blocked (except in the case of critical illness or disability) until you are allowed to have it and has to always act like a pension, i.e. less flexibility and adhering to pension rules.
Therefore when thinking about retirement you should focus on the following tips to truly give you flexibility, confidence in your retirement and peace of mind:

Maximise Property Assets
If you own property, is it earning you the real value of your money invested in it? For example, a property investor today would usually want to receive a 7% return on their investment to make it worth their while:

Annual rent of property: €15,000 pa
Property Value:€300,000
Annual yield:annual rental, divided by property price, x 100 = 5%.

This may or may not take into account any expenses on the property you have. Are you also paying an agency to look after your property? Here are some areas to work on:
Is the rent high enough given the amount of money invested?

Can you reduce the costs of running the property, i.e. maintenance/agency fees? If they have been managing it for a while and there isn’t too much for them to do, ask them to ‘sharpen’ their pencil. More often than not they will, as they won’t want to lose the regular income you provide them.

Investments/stocks/shares/funds
How are these performing? Dividend paying shares (that is those with the payments /bonuses given to you, reinvested) historically are one of the best performing investments (including property).
Are they outperforming the markets, or being managed less erratically? That means not going down as sharply as the markets do and giving a less volatile return, which in turn gives you security of capital invested

The key areas to note here are:

  • Performance
  • Fees
  • Trust in advice given

Pensions
Are you currently saving into a pension and if not, what are you doing instead (as I said above it doesn’t have to be a specific pension purse). Have you accumulated more than one pension, if so what are they all doing, how are they being looked after and where might you be when you retire?

Key points to find out:

  • Details/values/contact details of any pensions you have
  • What are they invested in and how are they performing?
  • What are your options?

When you have gathered all the necessary information (or the advisor can gather this for you with your authority), you can then sit down with a professional and talk through your options and what journey your life might take. You can also look at maximising your National Insurance contributions (a mathematical no brainer in many people’s circumstances, even if you live outside the UK) and planning what you can do to make sure moving forward you are maximising your assets and turning them into a comfortable retirement.

€200,000, achieving a 6% net return over a 27 year period would achieve 1 million Euros…….with good advice, planning and consistent reviews.