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Ukraine – stockmarkets’ reaction

By John Lansley - Topics: Spain, Stock Markets, Stocks & Shares
This article is published on: 10th March 2022


The Russian invasion of Ukraine on the 24th February shocked the world and the brutal treatment of Ukrainians continues to instill horror and a feeling of helplessness.  The world was beginning to breathe a collective sigh of relief about Covid’s impact diminishing, but now there is a new emergency threatening not just Ukraine but also the wider global community.

How it plays out is anyone’s guess and the purpose of this note is not to try to add to the comment and analysis we are reading every day, but to attempt to put into perspective how it has affected global stockmarkets, and hence people’s wealth.  The major markets are indeed down compared with the end of December –

  • FTSE100 -6.5%
  • DowJones -9.7%
  • NASDAQ -18%
  • Eurostoxx -18.3%

(Note that the blue chip FTSE100 and DowJones indices have fallen less than 10%, whereas the tech-heavy NASDAQ has fallen much more, after its huge gains in the last couple of years.  Europe is a lot closer to the war of course.)

But not all of these falls are due to the attack – markets had fallen already due to fears over increasing inflation, and a certain amount of profit-taking, but it’s true that from late-January the tension due to the increasing Russian rhetoric and the amassing of troops near the Ukrainian border was causing uncertainty, and that markets were becoming increasingly volatile.  Most thought that the situation would be diffused – how could Putin possibly risk global stability by going ahead with his war?

Looking back two years, we all remember what we were doing as the first Covid restrictions were announced, back in late March 2020.  Stock markets fell quickly.  Between the highs of late January/early February of that year and the 20th March, the falls rivalled the crash in October 1987 –

  • FTSE100 -32.4%
  • DowJones -34.7%
  • NASDAQ -29.3%
  • Eurostoxx -33.7%

There followed a slow but steady recovery, with the UK and Europe generally restoring all the lost ground since then by the end of 2021, US blue chip companies gaining much more and the NASDAQ, with its tech-laden businesses, peaking at 233% higher than 20.3.20.

Stock market reactions

What am I saying?
The invasion of Ukraine is indeed a horrible affair, but so far the major markets of blue chip companies have fallen far less than when Covid first threatened the world.  Portfolio valuations will have fallen of course, but most contain not just shares but also other types of investment that will not have fallen quite as much as stock markets themselves, and so most clients will not be seeing falls such as the headline figures above.

As was the case during the early stages of the Covid pandemic, fund managers and portfolio managers were very active in trying to reposition their portfolios to reduce exposure to problem areas and at the same time taking advantage of sectors that might benefit from the new financial climate, such as online businesses.  At times like these, portfolio managers really earn their salaries and the results will reveal their successes and failures.

Yes, these are difficult times, and, as an investor myself, I appreciate how easy it is to feel threatened by events outside my control.  But I am confident that the professionals who are looking after our money will continue to do so to the best of their ability.

If you would like to discuss these issues further, or if you have any questions relating to financial planning and how to invest safely as a resident of Spain, do please contact me.

Spanish CGT on UK Principal Residences

By John Lansley - Topics: Captial Gains, Spain, Tax in Spain, UK property
This article is published on: 25th March 2021


New residents in Spain wanting to sell their home in the UK, face a small but perhaps very costly change due to Brexit. John Lansley explains.

Like the UK, Spain has a favourable tax regime concerning your home – your principal residence. Here, any gain arising on selling your home can escape tax as long as you use the sale proceeds to purchase a new main residence. If you sell a property for €500,000 and then reinvest €250,000 in a new home, releasing monies for other purposes or simply downsizing, then only half of the gain attracts this exemption and the other half faces a tax liability.

Those over the age of 65 who sell their home enjoy full exemption, whether or not the proceeds are used to buy a replacement.

One little-known feature is that the rules apply to a property anywhere in the EU or EEA, which has been your only or main residence. Therefore, if you move to Spain from another EU/EEA country, selling your old home and using the proceeds to buy a new one in Spain will enjoy exemption, as described above.

However, while this exemption previously applied to those moving to Spain from the UK, Brexit has meant that the UK is in neither the EU nor the EEA, and therefore the sale of your home in the UK, when you have become tax resident in Spain, will expose the full amount of the gain to Spanish Capital Gains Tax.

property investment Spain

So, even if you want to use the proceeds, in full or in part, to purchase a new home in Spain, doing so after your arrival will result in a potentially very large Spanish tax bill, which could reduce quite substantially the amount you have available.

What are the Capital Gains Tax rates in Spain?

  • Up to €6,000 19%
  • €6,001 – €50,000 21%
  • €50,001 – €200,000 23%
  • Over €200,000 26%

If, for example, you are selling a UK property for the equivalent of €500,000, which you bought for the equivalent of €200,000, doing so now you are resident in Spain would produce a tax bill of €70,880, whereas selling before the end of 2020 (and of course reinvesting the proceeds in a new home in Spain) would have meant a zero tax bill.

What is the answer?
The best course will probably be to sell your UK home before arriving in Spain, but check that it does indeed qualify for the full principal residence exemption in the UK first. Selling UK property is usually more predictable than property in other countries, but it shows very clearly that timing can be extremely important. Any delay in exchanging contracts (the operative date) until after you arrive in Spain could prove very expensive.

The desire to tie together the sale of one home with the purchase of a replacement is something we’re used to doing in the UK, but in this case it would appear more sensible to sell your UK property, rent temporarily in either the UK or Spain, and only then purchase your new home in Spain.


Residence in Spain
Since Brexit, moving to Spain has become much more difficult. Working here, or coming here to retire, necessitates much more than it used to, and Spain’s Golden and Non-Lucrative Visa schemes will have to be utilised. The Golden Visa requires the purchase of property valued at more than €500,000, so any unexpected Spanish Capital Gains Tax bills might threaten your ability to do this.

Similarly, the Non-Lucrative Visa requires you to demonstrate your ability to support yourself. If your capital is severely depleted due to an unwanted tax bill, that might prove more difficult.

As always, it pays to seek professional advice, and we will be happy to help you make sense of these rules and apply them to your own circumstances.

Spain’s Golden and Non-Lucrative Visas

By John Lansley - Topics: Golden Visa Spain, Spain
This article is published on: 17th March 2021


Prior to Brexit, British residents had the freedom to live, work and travel anywhere in the EU, subject to local requirements, but those wishing to move to an EU country since 31.12.20 face a number of hurdles. Fortunately, there are two schemes that make a move to Spain much easier than would otherwise be the case, which is good news for those who have held long-cherished hopes of a retirement in sunnier climes!

Both schemes have similar basic requirements:

• You must not be a citizen of an EU or EEA state, or of Switzerland, and must be over 18 years of age
• You cannot have a criminal record (past 5 years)
• You must have health insurance, either via a state scheme or from a Spanish insurer
• You must not have entered or stayed in Spain illegally

Spain’s Golden Visa

Golden Visa
Coming from the UK, you will of course not be a citizen of an EU state, but you would need to comply with the other points above and certain others, depending on your situation. The most important aspect is that you must purchase a property in Spain for at least €500,000, without using a mortgage or other loan, and that you can demonstrate you can support yourselves financially. No specific amounts are quoted, but clearly you must be able to prove that the cost of running a property of this value plus general living expenses can be met, the figures mentioned below being a useful guideline.

There are alternatives – rather than investing €500,000 in property, investments of €1million in a Spanish bank deposit or in a Spanish company, or €2million in Spanish bonds, will also qualify you for a Golden Visa.

What are the benefits?
1. The Visa will apply to the main applicant and his/her spouse, plus minor children. Adult children or dependent parents can accompany them, but full details will need to be provided.
2. It allows the holder to work in Spain, subject to meeting local requirements.
3. The Visa holder does not need to reside in Spain or spend a certain amount of time here in order to renew it.
4. The Visa provides a residency permit for one year initially, and can then be renewed for a further two years and then 5 years. After 5 years, you can apply for permanent residency and, after 10 years, Spanish citizenship (if you have actually resided in Spain during that time).
5. The Visa allows travel within the Schengen area for 90 days out of any 180 (the same as the current restrictions for those resident in Spain).
6. The property can be sold once permanent residency is obtained.

spanish tax

Non-Lucrative Visa
Again, if you are coming to Spain from the UK, or any other non-EU country, you will satisfy the first general requirement above, but you will also need to meet the other requirements. However, the non-lucrative visa is aimed at those who do not need to work and as such will appeal specifically to those who are retired but who have sufficient income, because you are not allowed to work. It’s also known as a retirement visa for this reason, but it is also possible to undertake work as long as it is for clients based outside Spain.

In addition to the above qualifications, it is necessary to demonstrate income of at least €2,151.36 pm for the main applicant and an additional €537.84 pm for each additional family member. This can be in the form of pensions or investment income, but if in the form of dividends from a company it may be necessary to provide confirmation that no work is performed for the company concerned.

The visa needs to be applied for at the Spanish Consulate in the country of residence of the applicant, and only when the visa is granted can the applicant move to Spain.

What are the benefits?
1. As above, the visa can be applied for the main applicant and spouse, plus minor children and dependent children over the age of 18.
2. The visa provides an initial one year residence permit, followed by the ability to renew for a further 2 years, then another 2 years, and after that for a further 5 years. After 5 years, permanent residency can be applied for.
3. The ability to travel within the Schengen area, as above.
4. Even though you are unable to work in Spain, you are permitted to work remotely with clients located outside Spain.

Other Issues
Remember that being able to live in Spain, and spending most of the year there, will mean you will be fully exposed to Spanish taxes. Also, coming from a non-EU country will almost certainly mean your investments and perhaps some sources of income may no longer be suitable. For these reasons, it is essential to take professional advice well in advance of a move to Spain in order that any rearrangements can be considered.

Domicile re-visited – has Brexit had an impact?

By John Lansley - Topics: Domicile, Spain
This article is published on: 8th February 2021


This article is aimed at those living in Andalucia, but also applies to the rest of Spain and further afield.

UK domicile has always been a rather difficult topic, but, as it determines whether UK Inheritance Tax (IHT) will apply to your estate or not, it has always been important to understand how it works, especially since Brexit.

Inheritance Tax in Andalucia provides much more generous exemptions. So, is it a matter of choice? Are you able to choose which Inheritance Tax regime applies to you?

Firstly, some ground rules. As far as the UK HMRC are concerned, if you were born in the UK, the probability is that you will have a UK domicile of origin. Unless this changes, at your death your estate will be exposed to UK IHT, and this applies to your assets anywhere in the world.

If you are not domiciled in the UK, only UK assets will be subject to IHT. So, straightaway, it’s clear there can be a huge advantage in not being UK domiciled.

For example, imagine someone who lives in Andalucia and is tax resident there, owns a house in the UK worth £300,000 and has £300,000 worth of assets outside the UK. If UK domiciled at death, his estate would face a bill of £110,000*. If domiciled outside the UK, the UK IHT tax bill would be zero.

So, on the face of it, losing his UK domicile would make sense as it would save his heirs £110,000 (don’t forget Spanish Inheritance Tax! See below). But is it as simple as that?

Can I change my domicile?
Changing domicile is very difficult in practice. In the old-fashioned sense of emigrating to another country, where all UK links were severed and new ones established with your new home country, you might easily acquire a domicile of choice elsewhere. However, these days, when moving to Spain or France, or another country close to ‘home’, it is not so easy – for example, retaining a property in the UK, having UK investments and income sources, and even writing your Will under English Law, can all demonstrate that you have not sufficiently severed your links and acquired a new domicile.

Beyond simple facts such as these, domicile also hinges on intentions. So, someone who moves to Spain and vows never to return stands a better chance of losing UK domicile than someone who is pretty sure that, when poor health and family pressure become significant, a return to the UK is almost certainly going to happen.

Inheritance Tax in Spain
Spain’s Inheritance regime is different to the UK, in that it applies to those who die in Spain and also to assets situated in Spain. It is the recipient of an inheritance who pays the tax, and the amount depends upon the relationship between beneficiary and deceased.

As mentioned above, Andalucia’s Inheritance Tax rules are very generous, and an estate of the same size (ie, £600,000 or equivalent) located in Andalucia could attract no tax at all, if all the assets are left to the deceased’s children, for example, but a more distant beneficiary, or an unconnected person, would likely see tax having to be paid. Other Spanish regions are not so generous and bigger bills would ensue, as would be the case in many other countries, so it pays to check carefully.


So, has Brexit had any effect on this? Not in terms of UK and other Inheritance Tax laws themselves, nor Wills, but perhaps in the sense that your thoughts about moving back to the UK in later years might have been changed, especially if you have a non-UK spouse (due to the tough new income requirements in such cases). Or you might have UK assets that fall foul of various rule changes, and you need to consider making changes which could have an impact on your domicile, for better or for worse.

Loss of freedom of movement
If you have spent a lot of time in Spain in recent years, perhaps had a ‘foot in both camps’, and enjoyed the freedom of being able to come and go as you please, the recent realisation that you need to be rather more specific about which country you are based in might have meant looking closely at such things as where you pay tax, healthcare access, Wills, driving licences, bank accounts and other investments, and many more. Domicile and Inheritance Tax exposure in both the UK and Spain should have been part of the review because a wrong decision could prove costly.

Equally, if you left the UK after 31 December 2020, or considering doing so, you might find that the requirements for residence in Spain are too much of a hurdle and your intentions of remaining in Spain indefinitely (and saying goodbye to UK tax concerns) have had to be shelved and replaced with the alternative of spending much less time in Spain each year, with the resultant impact on domicile and UK IHT liabilities.

Don’t forget that your Will is an integral part of domicile and Inheritance Taxes planning in both Spain and the UK. Now is a very good time to consider whether yours needs to be updated.

So, as always, it’s vital to obtain proper professional advice, and this is a subject that, while perhaps not affecting you personally, could have a tremendous impact on the long term wealth of your family. Brexit has generated a number of less than obvious changes – domicile isn’t an obvious one, but it is certainly something that should be given careful thought.

*NB other exemptions and reliefs are available that might reduce the liability.

State Pension Benefits

By John Lansley - Topics: EU Pension Transfer, France, Pensions, Retirement, State Pensions After BREXIT, UK Pensions
This article is published on: 22nd May 2020


If you have moved from one country to another, while it may be comparatively easy to obtain tax advice in order to help you plan your finances, it can be very difficult to find out how your State Retirement Pension will be affected, and this has become more uncertain as a result of Brexit. This article aims to shed some light on the issue

This article aims to shed some light on the issue.

I retired in the UK and moved abroad
Let’s start with something easy – if you have already retired and moved to Spain, France or another EU country, the chances are your only State Pension will be from the UK. With Brexit in mind, as long as you were legally resident in your new home country by the end of 2020, nothing will change, and you will be entitled to the annual pension uplift indefinitely.

Coupled to this is your entitlement to healthcare, in that you will have a form S1 from the UK, which ensures you benefit from full care on an ongoing basis, and which in effect will be paid for by the UK Government.

If you have already left the UK but have not yet reached formal retirement age, as long as you were ‘legal’ in your adopted home before the end of 2020, you will receive the UK State Pension at retirement age and qualify for annual increases. You will also be entitled to a form S1.

Note that, if you have not regularised your situation in your adopted home by the end of 2020, the situation is uncertain, to say the least. You will be entitled to claim the UK State Pension when you reach retirement age, but the uplifts are only due for 3 years and, most importantly, form S1 will not be available.

I left the UK 5 years ago at the age of 55 and have been self-employed in Spain for the last 5 years
Have you been making voluntary contributions to the UK scheme? Are you making contributions in Spain? If you haven’t already done so, obtain a pension forecast from HMRC – use the gov.uk website, sign up for the Government Gateway access service, and check your National Insurance Contribution records, as well as your UK tax records. You’ll have to apply to contribute, using form CF83 attached to the booklet NI38, Social Security Abroad.

You will then be told what pension you can expect at your retirement age, and you can also see how many incomplete contribution years you have. It is generally good advice to continue to make voluntary contributions after leaving the UK (currently £795.60pa), but if you are currently self-employed, you will only have to pay at the Class 2 rate, which is £158.60pa for the current year.

You’ll receive details of how to make up the shortfall, by bank transfer or cheque for past years, and by direct debit for the future if you wish to see payments taken automatically. Importantly, you can also call to obtain advice concerning whether it would be worthwhile doing this, and how additional payments will increase your pension entitlement – it might take a while to get through, especially due to the current Coronavirus lockdown, as it appears they are only dealing with those on the point of retiring, but you should find the staff helpful when you do.

Also, make sure you understand what your Spanish contributions entitle you to and try to obtain a projection of your future pension in Spain. This might prove difficult at present, with offices closed or providing limited services.


Having worked in the UK, Italy and now in Spain, I want to claim my State Pension
The first thing to understand is that you should retire formally in the country you are currently living in, unless you haven’t made any pension

contributions there – in which case you apply to the last country in which you contributed.

So, in this case, you approach the Spanish authorities and will have to provide details of all your employment and self-employment history. Spain will then check with each country concerned (the EU-wide scheme ensures this is possible – work history outside the EU means you may have to apply individually to those countries) and will calculate your entitlement. (But bear in mind that Brexit may have had an impact on this in practice, even though the scheme should not be affected – very much ‘work in progress’).

They will do this by adding together the contribution years of each country and then applying this to their own pension rules. This means that, even if you don’t have the minimum number of years’ contributions in one country, the chances are that the contribution years in other countries will ensure you get a pro rata pension. Don’t forget, official retirement age can vary in different countries, and some state pensions are more generous than others.

Each country will then pay their share directly to you, and if you have continued paying into the UK system it’s likely you’ll end up with a much higher pension than might otherwise have been the case.

How is healthcare affected? Any other issues?
The good news is that receiving your pension locally will mean that your access to the local healthcare system comes with it – no need for a form S1. So, any attempts by the UK to remove themselves from the S1 scheme will not affect you.

Note that, although the UK state pension is paid regardless of your other income, the state pension in Spain is not, in that if you wish to continue to work, Spain will not pay anything to you.


Other financial planning tips?
Despite the UK government’s attempts to water down the ability to ‘export’ your UK private pensions using the QROPS arrangements, this is still

possible – but perhaps won’t be for much longer. So, obtain advice about whether such a move would be beneficial, as soon as possible.

Any savings or capital you have should be invested tax-efficiently and with the aim of protecting it against both inflation and exchange rate fluctuations. Stock markets can fluctuate too, sometimes dramatically as we have seen, so be careful you understand the amount of risk your investments are exposed to, and seek help from a suitably qualified professional who will be able to help you over the long term.

Life assurance investment policies and Brexit

By John Lansley - Topics: Assurance Vie, BREXIT, France, Investments
This article is published on: 15th August 2018


Is the uncertainty over Brexit causing you uncertainty over whether to stay in France or not? Whichever side of the Brexit divide you are on, and in the knowledge that “nothing is agreed until everything is agreed”, there are some important issues to be aware of concerning life assurance-based investments and indeed insurance policies in general.

It is possible that ‘equivalence’ rules will apply, and UK insurers will continue to be treated after Brexit as they are currently. But bear in mind that some of the comments in this article are made against a background of a possible ‘no-deal’ scenario, where financial services would be hit hard, so it’s important to look objectively at some of the likely implications when considering your future options.

Firstly, in order to set the scene, Brexit is set to take effect at the end of next March, following which there may be a transitional period of 15 months, during which much will continue as at present. For many of us the most important question is whether we are able to remain in France (or other EU27 country) or whether we will have to, or simply wish to, return to the UK.

With such a move comes the question of if and when you cease to be tax resident in France and instead become UK tax resident again. This is a complex area, and of course many will have been spending large parts of each year in both countries, perhaps technically risking UK residence already, and clearly this is an issue that many will need to address in detail.

For those who have investments held via life policies, and who enjoy all the benefits these offer, a change in tax residence is an event that necessitates an early review of such investments in order to determine whether they can continue as they are or whether any changes need to be considered, and this is a matter you should discuss with your financial adviser at the earliest opportunity.

French Assurances Vie
These are offered by insurance companies in France, Ireland and Luxembourg, and provide considerable tax and succession planning benefits. They also provide access to diverse investment possibilities in different currencies, and French law even allows you to hold individual listed company shares, so certain assurance vie contracts provide this facility, which can be very useful.

However, it’s important to realise that such flexibility will be punished by the UK’s HMRC if you become UK tax resident – this is because such a policy would be regarded as ‘highly personalised’ (see also below) and would be deemed to generate profits of 15% pa, which would be subject to your highest income tax rate. This would be the case even if losses were made during the year, and is clearly something to be avoided if at all possible.

You may not even use the facility to hold shares, and hold only funds, unit trusts or similar, but fortunately this treatment can be avoided by converting the policy to a ‘collectives only’ version before moving to the UK. SEB Life International, a major provider of such policies, offers an easy conversion process for existing policyholders and, if you hold one of their policies, it would be worth asking yourself whether requesting this conversion is appropriate – if you don’t ever intend to hold shares, and there is a vague possibility of becoming UK resident in future, it might be worth acting now.

Other assurance vie providers don’t always offer such investment flexibility, and so are unlikely to be affected, but if you are unsure you should check with your financial adviser.

UK Single Premium Policies
Many people in the UK own these as they provide significant UK tax advantages, and operate in a similar way to assurances vie (although the precise treatment is different). As is the case with French assurances vie and similar local policies in other countries, these allow the (relatively) tax-free roll up of income and gains inside the policy, and much less onerous taxation of withdrawals than is the case with income and gains from conventional investment holdings.

For those who have moved to France and who still hold such policies, the tax treatment can vary. There is no means by which profits can be taxed as long as these remain within the policy; however, withdrawals and encashment proceeds need to be declared to the tax authorities and, since tax treatment can vary from area to area, it is as well to assume that any such profits will be fully taxable.

In the past, there has perhaps been some inconsistency in how the rules are applied, but it is extremely likely that British people living in France after Brexit will find their affairs subjected to greater scrutiny, and such policies will face a much more certain and consistent treatment.

An important additional point is that UK policies suffer a form of UK corporation tax on the profits generated by the insurance company (and which therefore reduces the investment reward), which can’t be reclaimed or set against a French income tax liability, so they therefore suffer a form of double taxation that cannot be avoided.

Returning to the UK will mean that the tax benefits will continue to be available, but for those who remain in France it is important to review such policies as soon as possible – indeed, the best way forward might be to surrender the policies before Brexit and reinvest the proceeds via an assurance vie, so that all future profits will enjoy the favourable assurance vie tax regime. However, again, this is a complex area and is deserving of proper professional advice, depending on your own personal circumstances.

Offshore Policies
These are policies issued by insurance companies in the Isle of Man, Guernsey and elsewhere. These jurisdictions are not part of the UK, and hence currently not part of the EU either, but which have over many years seen a large number of policies sold to people resident in the UK and in various expatriate locations around the world.

There are two types – highly personalised (often referred to as personal portfolio bonds) and ‘collectives-only’, similar of course to the two types of assurances vie as described above.

For the UK resident, the highly personalised version is deemed to generate a gain of 15% pa, as described above, but the collectives version is treated in a similar way to the UK Single Premium Policy, with the ability to take up to 5% pa (cumulative) on a tax-deferred basis and excesses being subject to your highest income tax rate. UK policies enjoy a tax credit, which reduces the actual tax paid, but offshore policies see their excess withdrawals fully exposed because there is no tax credit given.

There are a number of ways in which tax can be mitigated, and which are beyond the scope of this article. However, returning to the UK will involve a careful review of all such policies to ensure that unnecessary tax bills are avoided, and fortunately most providers will allow you to convert the highly personalised policy to a collectives version before becoming UK resident, as long as you accept certain investment restrictions.

Anyone resident in France who holds such a policy and who intends to remain in France after Brexit should give careful consideration to whether the policy should be retained or whether it might be best to surrender it, pay whatever French tax is due, and then reinvest using, for example, an assurance vie in order to ensure ongoing tax-efficiency in France. For some, this might be a costly exercise, but it would be a one-off event and would ensure full future compliance in France at a time when many aspects of people’s affairs are subject to higher levels of scrutiny.

Policies Held In Trust
In some cases, UK and offshore life policies were set up in a simple trust, provided by the insurance company. Trusts have enjoyed a less than favourable treatment in France in recent years, but can still provide tax advantages in the UK. So, if by chance you have such a policy, whether you intend to return to the UK or remain in France will determine what action should be taken.

Other UK Insurance Policies
On moving to France, many continue to hold UK insurance policies of different types – perhaps an ongoing endowment policy, other life insurance, medical cover, car insurance and so on. It has always been important to advise your insurer of your change of residence in such a situation – simply providing a change of address on its own is not good enough, because a change of residence often means a change in the risk and hence a change in the premium. Only providing change of address details can effectively result in the insurer having a reason to reject any future claim.

However, the post-Brexit situation will mean that such continuing policies may not be effective at all, even if your insurer knows you are resident outside the UK. This is because, as with Single Premium Policies, the provider will be based outside the EU and, unless the equivalence provisions or similar are confirmed, the policies may cease to provide cover.

Other Brexit Issues
Brexit has affected, and will continue to affect, exchange rates and investments. We have seen how Sterling dropped against the Euro immediately after the referendum, as it has on other occasions of course, and this has had an immediate and lasting impact on UK sourced income and pensions for those living in the Eurozone.

What can be done? The use of specialist currency exchange providers can help but it also makes sense to reduce the overall risk by reducing reliance on such Sterling sources, wherever possible. This is not so easy if you rely on UK pensions, or property investments, but a detailed review of your assets would be an important step to take.

As for investment, the fall in Sterling was matched by a rise in the UK stockmarket, and generally the FTSE100 has continued to do well because of the large number of companies that enjoy US Dollar income streams, and which have reaped the benefits of a low Pound. But the trade and other problems Brexit is creating will mean that British businesses are likely to experience many difficulties, and therefore their ability to generate profits for shareholders (such as funds that invest in the UK and UK pension schemes) are likely to be hit.

This could be seen as a contentious issue but reliance on UK investments will exacerbate the problems caused by over-reliance on Sterling, and a more diverse approach would probably be preferable.

One area of particular interest is the decision whether or not to transfer your UK pension to a QROPS provider, as this can help address the issues of currency and investment strategy by bringing your pension capital more directly under your control.

This is another complex area that requires very specific professional involvement, but your ability to use QROPS could be curtailed after Brexit. Already, transfers to non-EEA providers have been hit by a 25% exit charge, and this may be applied across the board after Brexit takes effect.

Change brings threats and opportunities, and can be especially challenging when you have retired and have made great efforts to adapt to what has perhaps been a very significant lifestyle change.

Fortunately, as ever, an awareness of the likely problems means you are better equipped to make suitable preparations. Hopefully this article has shone a light on some areas that could have a very significant impact on your finances and, more importantly, has suggested possible solutions.